Fruit processing equipment is the process and method of processing fresh fruit to maintain or improve the edible quality of fruit. Fresh fruit is rich in nutrients, but soft tissue, containing more water, easy to deteriorate due to various microbial parasites and physical and chemical factors. The requirement of processing is to preserve the flavor and nutritive value of fruit, enhance its storage resistance and facilitate transportation. It is important to make full use of fruit resources and adjust the market supply. The main processing methods are drying, wine making, juice making, sugar making, canning and so on. The following are specific instructions for various processing methods.
Drying is the process of removing moisture from materials by using heat or other energy sources. Its function is to restrict the effective water contained in food or to reduce the water activity in order to inhibit the growth of microorganisms and achieve the purpose of preservation. There are two methods of natural drying and artificial drying. The application of artificial drying is wider, and the two methods can also be combined.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its enzymes are used to metabolize sugars from fruit or juice into alcohol and inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms. Fruit wine is a kind of single fermented wine, which is no longer distilled after alcoholic fermentation, and is not saccharifying before fermentation. Medium alcohol content (about 10 ~ 15% capacity), containing more extracts, so alcohol and alcohol, and good nutrition. Grape, apple, pear and sweet orange can be brewed, but because of the high sugar content of grape juice, high acidity, and the natural presence of yeast in the flesh and other reasons, the production of wine-based. The fermentation of yeast by the flesh itself is called natural fermentation. Artificial fermentation is to add grape wine yeast into grape juice to control the fermentation process.
Juice processing is a process to extract fruit juice. Sweet oranges, lemons, grapefruit, pineapples, apples, grapes, Myrica rubra, guava and various berries are suitable for juicing. Juice is the juice of fruit cells obtained by squeezing or extracting. The original juice must be adjusted to a certain extent when necessary, so that the product meets certain specifications. Apple juice and grape juice are often made into transparent juice while orange juice is mostly cloudy. Concentrated juice is concentrated from the original juice, generally without sugar, only with the same fruit juice to adjust ingredients. The concentration ratio is 3-6 times of the original juice, the soluble solids are about 40-60% and the super concentration is 65%. After being diluted, it can be drunk. Fruit bait is a kind of fruit juice with a large amount of sugar added to the original juice. It is often used as a substrate for the preparation of fruit juice beverages. Fruit juice powder is a kind of powdery product which is further dehydrated by concentrated juice. Its water content is 1-3%. It must be rehydrated before drinking.
Sugar processing is a method of processing and preservation, in which the water activity of high concentration sugar solution is reduced and osmotic pressure is strong, so that microorganisms can not move because of physiological dehydration. The products are divided into two categories: preserves and jam. (1) preserves. It is a product with a sugar content of 55 to 70% and keeping its original shape. There are 3 types of wet, dry and sugar coated fruits. 2. Jam. Products that do not retain the original shape and contain 60% or more sugar. Among them, the commonly known jam can still detect the fruit pieces; homogeneous, semi-solid products are called fruit paste.
Canning is a processing and preservation method for filling fruit and filling liquid into air tight container and then heating and sterilizing. Canned food has the advantages of good quality, strong preservation, easy to eat and carry, and highly automated production. Before canning, empty cans must be sterilized to a commercial aseptic state, that is, there are no food spoilage and post-food pathogenic microorganisms in the cans, but a small number of heat-resistant and non-toxic sporogenous bacteria and acid-resistant microorganisms are allowed to exist in acidic food.